Delphi Technique

The Delphi Technique

By
Dr. Muhammad Imran Yousuf
Lecturer,
Division of Continuing Education,
University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi

Introduction
The Delphi technique is a group process used to survey and collect the opinions of experts on a particular subject. Linstone and Turoff (1975) provided a basic definition of the Delphi technique: “Delphi may be characterized as a method for structuring a group communication process so that the process is effective in allowing a group of individuals, as a whole, to deal with a complex problem”. It has application whenever policies, plans, or ideas have to be based on informed judgment. This technique is useful where the opinions and judgments of experts and practitioners are needed but time, distance, and other factors make it unlikely or impossible for the panel to work together in the same physical location.

The Delphi technique, by definition, is a group process involving an interaction between the researcher and a group of identified experts on a specified topic, usually through a series of questionnaires. Delphi has been used to gain a consensus regarding future trends and projections using a systematic process of information gathering. This technique is useful where the opinions and judgments of experts and practitioners are necessary. It is especially appropriate when it is not possible to convene experts in one meeting. Skutsch and Hall (1973) identified the Delphi technique as a method for gaining judgments on complex matters where precise information is unavailable.

 

 

Historical Profile
The technique was named after the ancient Greek oracle at Delphi from which prophecies were given (Koontz & O’Donnell, 1976). An oracle refers to a statement from someone of unquestioned wisdom and knowledge or of infallible authority (Funk & Wagnells, 1966). The Delphi technique was developed by Olaf Helmer and his associates at the Rand Corporation in the early 1950s when they were working on defense research. Rieger (1986) described Delphi’s development in five stages: (1) secrecy and obscurity, (2) novelty, (3) popularity, (4) scrutiny, and (5) continuity.

The first stage was secrecy, during which the Delphi technique was classified by the military. Delphi techniques were developed to gain consensus within a group of military experts on a very sensitive problem. This stage lasted from the early 1950s to the early 1960s, when it was declassified.

The second stage, novelty, lasted from the mid-1960s to the late 1960s. During this stage the technique was used primarily by corporate planners as a forecasting tool for industry and human services.

The third stage, popularity, lasted from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s. During this time 389 articles, papers, and reports appeared on the topic. Rieger (1986) reported that between the years of 1970 and 1974, 61 dissertations used the Delphi technique.

The fourth stage, scrutiny, began in 1975 with Sackman’s unexpected attack on the Delphi technique itself. The attack was not unchallenged. The “first thrust” of Sackman’s criticism was that the technique did not measure up to the psychometric standards of the American Psychological Association…. Sackman’s reasoning on this point was effectively challenged and refuted by Goldschmidt. Goldschmidt (1975) responded to Sackman’s criticism in an article entitled, “Scientific Inquiry or Political Critique? Remarks on Delphi Assessment, Expert Opinion, Forecasting, and Group Process by H. Sackman.” Rieger (1986) stated, “Members of the research community thus gave notice that Sackman should not necessarily be accepted as the final arbiter regarding Delphi’s scientific respectability”. Sackman’s second thrust criticized the indiscriminate execution of Delphi studies.

The fifth and final stage, continuity, is the Delphi’s present stage of development. Rieger (1986) identified 599 dissertations using the Delphi technique between 1975 and 1984, with 441 of them between 1980 and 1984.

Areas of application

Linstone and Turoff (1975) argued that Delphi has application in the following areas:

-ï€ Gathering current and historical data not accurately known or available.
-ï€ Evaluating possible budget allocations.
-ï€ Exploring urban and regional planning options.
-ï€ Planning university campus and curriculum development.
-ï€ Putting together an educational model.
-ï€ Delineating the pros and cons associated with potential policy options.
-ï€ Distinguishing and clarifying real and perceived human motivations.
-ï€ Exploring priorities of personal values, social goals, etc.

They further stated that one or more of the following leads one to use the Delphi Technique:

– The problem does not lend itself to precise analytical techniques but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis.
– The individuals needed to contribute to the examination of a broad or complex problem have no history of adequate communication and may represent diverse backgrounds with respect to experience or expertise.
– More individuals are needed than can effectively interact in a face-to-face exchange.
– Time and cost make frequent group meetings unfeasible.
– A supplemental group communication process can increase the efficiency of face-to-face meetings.

Forms of Delphi
The original intent of Delphi was as a forecasting technique, designed to predict the likelihood of future events. Additional names have been given to this process. Dailey (1988) described it as an exploratory Delphi. Van Dijk (1990) called it a conventional Delphi. According to Dalkey (1972) the Delphi is a procedure that is a rapid and efficient way to “cream the tops of the heads” of a group of knowledgeable people. He further stated that a well-designed and properly managed Delphi could be a highly motivating environment for respondents.

A policy Delphi is one which seeks to generate the strongest possible opposing viewpoints on a policy issue from an expert panel. Rather than consensus, the emphasis is on identifying differing opinions and divergent responses through a process of debate carried out though the rounds of Delphi (Needham, 1990).

The policy Delphi is given other names also, such as focus Delphi and decision Delphi. A normative Delphi (also called a consensus Delphi), focuses on establishing what is desirable in the form of goals and priorities. It does not focus on speculating about what is probable within a given time frame in the future; instead it is an attempt to “… structure a set of properties which could be integrated into a normative future–properties based on the criterion of desirability rather than likelihood …” (Sutherland, 1975).

Most Delphi studies in educational settings are normative and are perceived as particularly useful. Rieger (1986) reported 83 percent of the dissertations completed during the 1981-1984 period which used the Delphi technique were of the normative type. He went on to state, “… it seems reasonable to claim that Delphi is continuing to be a much used tool in the search for answers to normative questions, especially in education areas, but also in other fields”.

Process
The process for each type of Delphi is essentially the same; however, the purpose of a study determines the type of Delphi used. The Delphi’s process is similar to the nominal group technique (NGT), except Delphi does not require the physical presence of group members (Mitchell & Larson, 1987). An interaction process still takes place between the members of the group (Delphi panel) and the researcher, with the researcher acting as a facilitator.

The basic steps of the Delphi process were outlined by Pfeiffer (1968):

1. The first questionnaire which is sent to the panel of experts may ask for a list of opinions involving experiences and judgments, a list of predictions, and a list of recommended activities.
2. On the second round, a copy of the collective list is sent to each expert and the expert is asked to rate or evaluate each item by some criterion of importance.
3. The third questionnaire includes the list, the ratings indicated, and the consensus, if any. The experts are asked to either revise their opinions or discuss their reasons for not coming to consensus with the group.

Scheele (1975) illustrated a process where the opinions and judgments of people familiar with or associated with a subject and they listed a typical sequence of events in the Delphi process in six steps:

1. Identify the group members whose consensus opinions are sought. If the study goes beyond an intact group such that representatives must be selected, care must be taken to insure that all the various publics or positions are proportionately sampled.

2. Questionnaire One. Have each member generate a list of goals, concerns, or issues toward which consensus opinions are desired. Edit the results to a manageable summary of items presented in random order. Prepare the second questionnaire in an appropriate format for rating or ranking (Note: If an established or acceptable listing of such items already exists, this first step can be bypassed.).

3. Questionnaire Two. Have each member rate or rank the resulting items.

4. Questionnaire Three. Present the results of Questionnaire Two in the form of Questionnaire Three, showing the preliminary level of group consensus to each item. Where the individual differs substantially from the group, and chooses to remain so on Questionnaire Three, the respondent should provide a brief reason or explanation.

5. Questionnaire Four. The results of Questionnaire Three are presented in the form of Questionnaire Four, showing the new level of group consensus for each item and repeating the member’s latest rating or ranking, along with a listing by item of the major reasons members had for dissent from the prevailing group position. Each member rates or ranks each item for the third and final time, in light of the emerging pattern of group consensus and the reasons for dissent.

6. The results of Questionnaire Four are tabulated and presented as the final statement of group consensus.

Worthen and Sanders (1987) stated that this “iterative procedure can continue for several more rounds, but the payoff usually begins to diminish quickly after the third round”. Brooks (1979) included an additional step prior to beginning the procedure: assess the willingness of potential panel members to participate in the study.
Several steps, as identified by Brooks (1979), are involved in using the Delphi Technique:

1. Identifying the panel of experts.
2. Determining the willingness of individuals to serve on the panel.
3. Gathering individual input on the specific issue and then compiling it into basic statements.
4. Analyzing data from the panel.
5. Compiling information on a new questionnaire and sending to each panel member for review.
6. Analyzing the new input and returning to the panel members the distribution of the responses.
7. Asking each panel member to study the data and evaluate their own position based on the responses from the group. When individual responses vary significantly from that of the group norm, the individual is asked to provide a rationale for their differing viewpoint while limitations are placed on the length of the remarks in order to keep responses brief.
8. Analyzing the input, and sharing the minority supporting statements with the panel. Panel members are again asked to review their position and if not within a specified range, to justify the position with a brief statement.

Characteristics of Delphi Technique
Dalkey (1967) has identified the following basic characteristics of the Delphi technique:

1. Anonymity – – the use of questionnaires or other communication where expressed responses are not identified as being from specific members of the panel allows for anonymity.
2. Controlled feedback from the interaction – – Controlled feedback allows interaction with a large reduction in discord among panel members. Interaction consists of allowing interaction among group members in several stages, with the results of the previous stage summarized and group members asked to reevaluate their answers as compared to the thinking of the group.
3. Statistical group response – – the group opinion is defined as a statistical average of the final opinions of the individual members, with the opinion of every group member reflected in the final group response.

At the same time as Dalkey (1967) was identifying the basic characteristics of the Delphi technique, Helmer (1967) supported the validity and reliability of the technique as an acceptable method of data collection from an identified group. Further he said that Delphi Technique is efficient in both group decision making situations and in other areas where order of magnitude estimates are required (Helmer, 1983). A Delphi study carried to the extreme degree could be an expensive undertaking in both time and money on the part of the researcher and the respondents.

Strengths.

The Delphi technique is beneficial when other methods are not adequate or appropriate for data collection. It is particularly useful when

1. The problem does not lend itself to precise analytical techniques but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis.
2. The individuals needed to contribute to the examination of a broad or complex problem have no history of adequate communication and may represent diverse backgrounds with respect to experience and expertise.
3. More individuals are needed than can effectively interact in a face-to-face exchange.
4. Time and cost make frequent group meetings infeasible.
5. The efficiency of face-to-face meetings can be increased by a supplemental group communication process.
6. Disagreements among individuals are so severe or politically unpalatable that the communication process must be refereed and/or anonymity assured.
7. The heterogeneity of the participants must be preserved to assure validity of the results, i.e., avoidance of domination by quantity or by strength of personality (“bandwagon effect”). (Linstone & Turoff, 1975)

Helmer (1983) agreed that Delphi is a technique frequently used for eliciting consensus from within a group of experts that has application in reliability and has many advantages over other methods of using panel decision making. Helmer (1983) agrees with Linstone and Turoff (1975) in regards to the application of Dephi. Helmer (1983), Linstone and Turoff (1975), and Dalkey (1972) all found that one of the major advantages of using Delphi as a group response is that consensus will emerge with one representative opinion from the experts.

There are many additional advantages. The technique is simple to use. Advanced mathematical skills are not necessary for design, implementation, and analysis of a Delphi project. Because the Delphi provides confidentiality, many barriers to communication are overcome. Some of these barriers are reluctance to state unpopular views, to disagree with one’s associates, or to modify previously stated positions (Barnes, 1987).

It helps prevent a groupthink, as earlier mentioned, particularly with one or two dominant people. A major strength of the technique is the flexible, but limited, time parameters with which individuals have to respond to the questionnaires (Brooks, 1979). This flexibility allows individuals, who may be restricted by daily schedules and geographic location, the opportunity to respond at times available to them.

Limitations
Delphi is not without limitations. The consensus reached in a Delphi may not be a true consensus; it may be a product of specious or manipulated consensus. A specious consensus does not contain the best judgment. Instead, it is a compromise position (Mitroff & Turoff, 1975).

Delphi appears to be a straightforward approach to doing research in the area of forecasting and for building consensus. Researchers, at first glance, think of Delphi as a simple technique that can be done easily. However, one must carefully consider the problems associated with Delphi before designing a Delphi study.

Linstone and Turoff (1976) suggested that there are five common reasons for Delphi to fail:

1. Imposing monitor views and preconceptions of a problem upon the respondent group by over specifying the structure of the Delphi and not allowing for contribution of other perspectives related to the problem.
2. Assuming that Delphi can be a surrogate for all other human communications in a given situation.
3. Poor techniques of summarizing and presenting the group response and ensuring common interpretations of the evaluation scales utilized in the exercise.
4. Ignoring and not exploring disagreement so that discouraged dissenters drop out and an artificial consensus is generated
5. Understanding the demanding nature of a Delphi and the fact that the respondents should be recognized as consultants and properly compensated for their time if the Delphi is not an integral part of their job function.

Delkey (1972) pointed out that Delphi is not sufficient to be a defining property for an uncertain question because the expert’s cultural bias can lead to similar answers to some questions which in fact are poorly known; or there could be an instance where the experts legitimately do not know the answer. According to Linstone and Turoff (1975), the “virtual” problems do not affect the utility of Delphi but rather how to select the respondent group.

Barnes (1987) has listed additional disadvantages of the technique:

1. Judgments are those of a select group of people and may not be representative;
2. Tendency to eliminate extreme positions and force a middle-of-the-road consensus;
3. More time consuming than the nominal group process;
4. Should not be viewed as a total solution;
5. Requires skill in written communication;
6. Requires adequate time and participant commitment (about 30 to 45 days to complete the entire process).

Fortune (1992) indicated that an additional reason for Delphi failure is that the panel members may not be able to see the vision or the “big picture” in which they are involved. This problem arises when the panel members chosen are so close to the problem that they cannot see the future.

Appropriateness
An overriding factor in the selection of the Delphi technique is the appropriateness of the technique for a particular study. Linstone (1978) identified two circumstances where Delphi techniques are most appropriate:

(1) “the problem does not lend itself to precise analytical techniques but can benefit from subjective judgments on a collective basis” and
(2) “individuals who need to interact cannot be brought together in a face-to-face exchange because of time or cost constraints”.

Panel

The information obtained by the Delphi study is only as good as the experts who participate on the panel. Therefore, the composition of the panel relates to the validity of the results of the research (Spencer-Cooke, 1989). It is the panel’s opinions and judgments that are elicited and analyzed. Therefore, considerable thought most go into the selection of the panel.

Validity
Delphi techniques identify the reasons why there is a degree of disagreement among the experts and help to ascertain whether the nature of the disagreement is real or purely semantic (Helmer, 1983). Convergence, even when it happens, is not enough to validate the method because it should be convergence toward the correct value that counts (Helmer, 1983). Helmer (1983) stated that there are two reasons why relatively few experiments have been conducted to validate the predictive power of Delphi inquiries. One is that long-range forecasts cannot be verified until a sufficiently long time has elapsed. The other is that Delphi is a method pertaining to the utilization of expert opinions. Hence, to validate the method properly, experts would have to be used as laboratory subjects.

Dalkey and Helmer (1983) have well documented that statistically the Delphi Techniques tend to produce not only convergence but also that convergence is in the direction of the true value. Helmer (1983) pointed to the explicit evidence of the validity of the Delphi technique in producing relatively reliable forecasts.

References
Anderson, F. T. T. (1975). A modified Delphi study of the political feasibility of critical issues affecting educational reform in Maryland. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Barnes, J. L. (1987). An international study of curricular organizers for the study of technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Brooks, K. W. (1979). Delphi technique: Expanding applications. North Central Association Quarterly, 53, 377-385.
Cetron, M. J. (1969). Technological forecasting. New York: Gordon and Breach.
Dailey, A. L. (1988). Faculty consensus at a multi-campus college through Delphi. Community/Junior College Quarterly, 12, 21-26.
Dalkey, N. C. (1967). Delphi. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.
Dalkey, N. C., & Helmer, O. (1962). An experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts (Report No. RM-727-PR) (Abridged). Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.
Flanders, F. B. (1988). Determining curriculum content for nursery/landscape course work in vocational agriculture for the 21st Century: A future’s study utilizing the Delphi technique. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Georgia.
Forsyth, D. R. (1990). Group dynamics (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Fortune, J. C. (1992, May). [Interview with Dr. Jimmie C. Fortune, Professor at Virginia Tech]. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech.
Goldschmidt, P. G. (1975). Scientific inquiry or political critique? Remarks on Delphi assessment, expert opinion, forecasting, and group process by H. Sackman. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 7, 195-213.
Helmer, O. (1967). Systematic use of expert opinions (Report No. P-3721). Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation.
Helmer, O. (1983). Looking forward: A guide to future research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Isaac, S., & Michael, W. B. (1981). Handbook in research and evaluation. San Diego, CA: EdITS Publishers.
Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin.
Koontz, H., & O’Donnell, C. (1976). Management: A systems and contingency analysis of managerial functions (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Linstone, H. A. (1978). The Delphi technique. In J. Fowlers (Ed.), Handbook of futures research (pp. 273-300). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Linstone, H. A., & Turoff, M. (Eds. ). (1975). The Delphi method: Techniques and applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (Eds.). (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Mitroff, I. I., & Turoff, M. (1975). Philosophical and methodological foundations of Delphi. In H. A. Linstone & M. Turoff (Eds.), The Delphi method: Techniques and applications (pp. 17-35). Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Needham, R. D. (1990). Geographic: The policy Delphi: Purpose, structure, and application. The Canadian Geographer, 34(2), 133-142.
Pfeiffer, J. (1968). New look at education. Poughkeepsie, NY: Odyssey Press.
Reeves, G., & Jauch, L. R. (1978). Curriculum development through Delphi. Research in Higher Education, (8), 157-68.
Rieger, W. G. (1986). Directions in Delphi developments: Dissertations and their quality. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 29, 195-204.
Scheele. (1975). Consumerism comes to Delphi. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 7, 215-219.
Skutsch, M., & Hall, D. (1973). Delphi: Potential uses in education planning. Project Simu-School: Chicago component. Chicago, IL: Chicago Board of Education, Illinois Department of Facility Planning.
Skutsch, M., & Hall, D. (1973). Delphi: Potential uses in education planning. In J. L. Barnes, (1987). An international study of curricular organizers for the study of technology. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Spencer-Cooke, B. (1989). Conditions of participation in rural, non-formal education programmes: A Delphi study. Educational Media International, 26(2), 115-124.
Sutherland, J. W. (1975). Architecting the future: A Delphi-based paradigm for normative system-building. In H. A. Linstone & M. Turoff (Eds.), The Delphi method: Techniques and applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Uhl, N. P. (Ed). (1983). Using research for strategic planning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (1990). Delphi questionnaires versus individual and group interviews: A comparison case. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 37, 293-304.
Weatherman, R., & Swenson, K. (1974). Delphi technique: Futurism in education. In J. L. Barnes, (1987). An international study of curricular organizers for the study of technology (pp. 56-69). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Worthen, B. R., & Sanders, J. R. (1987). Educational evaluation: Alternative approaches and practical guidelines. New York: Longman.

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Education is the key for the success of any country and the betterment of any individual. There are different approaches towards education and it depends on the culture and mindset of different races. More precisely, there is a difference between the approaches as far as education is concerned in the western countries and in India. In fact, there are clear cut differences in the objective of education in both sides.

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I always think one of the most appealing things of The United States is that US parents are far more open in education. Instead of just talking to their children unilaterally, they pay more attention to the conversation between they and their children.

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ROBERT KIYOSAKITHE __DAD__ OF FINANCIAL WIZARDRY

Robert Kiyosaki is a man with his fingers in many pies. He is a renowned author, a financial guru, an advocate of financial literacy, a businessman, an investor, an owner of mines and oil wells, into real estate, a motivational speaker, an entrepreneur and over and above all an inspiration for many eager to gain financial smartness. This brilliant financial expert was in Delhi last weekend and will be speaking in Bangalore the coming weekend, attending the National Achiever’s Conference in both the cities. Kiyosaki’s ‘gyan’ on finances is smart, simple and with a difference.

An amazing personality, Robert Kiyosaki is the best selling author of the “Rich Dad, Poor Dad” series of books which provide a unique insight into how a person can become rich. It explains his theory about money and success. His book has sold 26 million copies. His “poor dad” was his biological father, who was highly educated and became superintendent of the Hawaii State Department of Education but remained poor always. His “rich dad” was his friend’s father who though not very educated earned a lot of money and ended up becoming one of the richest men of Hawai, the place where Kiyosaki lived. His basic idea was to drive home the point that the traditional way of earning money through working as an employee and by acquiring just formal education would not enable anyone to become truly rich.

By means of his book Kiyosaki explains how maximum number of people in this world never break the stereotype and continue to be inextricably involved in the ‘rat race’ trying to make a living dependent on the paychecks they receive every month. They never realize financial freedom; their whole life being spent in paying bills and meeting expenses. Kiyosaki believes in easy cash flow coming from what he calls assets in life. ‘Assets’ for him are royalties, rental properties and businesses rather than mutual funds or stocks. He advocates making full use of tax breaks provided by the Government and reduce one’s expenditure incurred on tax payment. Such things on which cash has to be spent like houses, cars etc. are for him ‘liabilities’. He believes that we should be able to generate passive income without really having to work for a paycheck day after day in order to enjoy true financial independence in our lives.

He explains what he perceives to be the glaring difference between the rich and the poor, “The rich people have assets and poor and middle class people buy liabilities that they think are assets, so they think that their house is an asset, their car is an asset, their watch is an asset – they are really liabilities. The difference between rich and poor people is not their education it is the assets versus liabilities.”

He further says, “Rich do not work for money. What the rich work for is acquisition of assets. Assets provide money. So every year I start more and more businesses, buy oil wells, so every year I get richer and richer whereas the poor and the middle class they want their pay check. Pay checks are taxed the highest.”

In fact, his books, Rich Dad Poor Dad, Rich Dad’s CASHFLOW Quadrant, and Rich Dad’s Guide to Investing, have been on number one on the top 10 best-seller lists simultaneously on The Wall Street Journal, USA Today and the New York Times. Rich Kid Smart Kid was published in 2001, with the purpose of helping parents teach their children financial concepts. He has created three “Cashflow” board and software games for adults and children and has a series of “Rich Dad” CDs and disks.

Kiyosaki emphatically stresses on the significance of games, particularly Monopoly, as valuable means of learning basic financial strategies such as “trade four green houses for one red hotel.” Kiyosaki has created several games such as Cashflow 101 and Cashflow 202 to reinforce the information in his book.

The reason why games are a better teaching tool is because they involve you mentally, physically, emotionally and spiritually.”says the financial expert who has always been a great exponent of teaching children about finances from the very beginning of their lives when they are eager to absorb all knowledge and information avidly.

In fact in 1996 he invented the board game “Cash Flow — Rich Dad and Poor Dad”. According to Robert, it is the “only game in the world which teaches basic accounting and helps the participants to know the difference between assets and liabilities. The reason I used games is because that is how I learnt about money by playing monopoly and it taught me about money, strategies etc. Today I play monopoly in real life – I own hotels, companies and oil wells.”(Of Rich And Poor, S.Ravi, The Hindu)

Robert Kiyosaki strongly feels that there is lack of financial education in the existing system of education in the schools of the entire world. “There is no financial education in the institutions. Why don’t they teach about money in schools? It should be part of the school curriculum. Otherwise why do we go to school?” the author opines. He feels further that “Most teachers know nothing about money so what they will teach the kids.”

A fourth-generation Japanese American, Kiyosaki was born on April 8,1947 and raised in Hilo, Hawaii. He is the youngest son of an educator, Ralph H. Kiyosaki and a nurse, Marjorie O. Kiyosaki. The reason why he entered the finance arena was as he says in his own words, “Apart from my mother being worried about our finances when I was younger, my frustration with the school system and the pain I felt watching my parents struggle financially all their lives put me on the path I’ve travelled in the area of personal finance.”

Kiyosaki also operates his own blog, acts as the principal host on his YouTube Channel called The Rich Dad Channel and maintains a monthly column on Yahoo Finance writing about his business endeavors and his perspective on global economics, investing, business, world financial markets, and personal finance. Kiyosaki’s books and teachings have been criticized for focusing on anecdotes and containing little in the way of concrete advice on how readers should proceed.Kiyosaki responds that his material is meant to be more of a motivational tool to get readers thinking about money rather than a step-by-step guide to wealth. He also says the books are supposed to be “interesting” to people, which precludes involving a lot of technical material.(Wikipedia)

In his personal life, Kiyosaki divorced his first wife, named Janet, in 1981. In 1986, Kiyosaki married his second wife Kim Meyer and is still married to her. Kim Kiyosaki is also an entrepreneur, investor, author, and motivational speaker. The Kiyosakis have residence in the Scottsdale area in Phoenix, Arizona and have been living there since 1994.

On his India visit he said India has “huge untapped brain power”and also that “As far as raw intellect is concerned Indians are very, very smart. Given the tools, their intellect will be magnified. India is going to be information power. In fact, it already is.”

However the “dad” of financial wizardry intensely feels that “What is killing the world today is highly-educated, smart people, who know nothing about money,” This is what he wholeheartedly wishes to change in the world.

Robert Kiyosaki aims to usher in positive transformation in the world by imparting practical education about finance, about financial freedom and about leading a life where one does not have to worry about being without money at any point of time in life. To teach people of all ages what he learnt in life in his journey of attaining financial independence, Kiyosaki has made successful use of the power of games and books and has thereby made the learning simple and interesting for millions.

Sardar Patel Vidyalaya Lodhi Estate Lodhi Road Delhi

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is a fiery historical figure in Indian History known for his crucial role during the Indian Freedom Struggle and suffering and sacrifice. In the year, 1958 in free India, the Gujarat Education Society established the Sardar Patel Vidyalaya was established in memory of Sardar Patel and inspired by his ideals in Lodhi Estate. The aim was to meet the diverse educational needs of the Children in Delhi with the objective of preserving the best of Gujarati culture and heritage and yet strive to be progressive in outlook.

The school functioned with a value based child centric educational approach and its mission was to retain the ‘Indian’ identity in children as they aspired for higher studies abroad. The school believed in inculcating in its students a strong value system based on a unique blend of traditions and modernity. The teachers provide the students with special attention to enhance the all-round development of their personality transforming them into ‘caring’ and ‘sharing’ individuals equipped with with respect for both for both man and nature.

Shri H.M Patel as our founder president established the Institution with the belief that education should be broad, balanced and integrated combining both academic and practical skills in the pursuit of excellence. The school aims at providing children with opportunities to develop their natural abilities to face the rapidly changing world. To this end, the faculty has always been encouraged to use the classroom situations to make relevant and critical connections to both the child’s inner life and the outside.

The Morning Assembly develops the spiritual side of the students while the Friday Collection sensitizes children to the needs of those less privileged. The Neighborhood Project, open to classes IX and XI, contributes to the underprivileged. The children are taught vocational subjects like candle making, designing cards and calendars etc. The children are taught to call the peons and attenders as Bhaiyas or Didis. The infrastructure of the school comprises two computer labs with 22 latest Compaq and HP systems installed with an Internet facility. Computer education is imparted from class V onwards. The library at Sardar Patel consists of a vast collection of 20,000 books but.

Nursery and Class I have their midday meals as part of the school routine but the older children are served with a freshly cooked variety of snacks by the canteen. Aerated drinks are not permitted .A full time qualified doctor and a nurse look after our full-fledged clinic where all first aid and minor emergencies can be taken care of. The Centre also conducts training in first aid. The School, in collaboration with the DTC, provides transport for via 22 bus routes. Sardar Patel, like its leader is a school for the strong willed.

The writer of this article is a school advisor in OnlineSchoolAdmissions and provides free of cost consultancy to parents and schools for fast and easy online school admissions. Parents can look for schools directory list on the site from where they can search for nursery or play school in India in which he thinks he can admit his child in Sardar Patel Vidyalaya from the Nursery Schools in Lodhi Road or from the English Medium Schools in Lodhi Road. They can also search for the top 10 schools as per their choice and can fill school admission forms online.

Silk – A hardcore Job For Anyone

Manufacturing silk isn’t as easy considering that it sounds. We’re going to examine some of what’s involved including a glance at what typical muscle mass fast production is in many of the more productive countries including Japan, China in addition to Thailand.

Silk production is accomplished in stages. The initial stage is hatching your silkworm egg in a very controlled environment. Rise done in a powerful aluminium box. The boxes first end up being examined to get them to be free of problems. The female silkworm frequently lays about 300 that will 400 eggs before starting. In an area about the strength of a piece about typing paper pertaining to 50 moths can easily lay over 20, 000 eggs at some point. Each of these types of eggs is about the strength of a pinhead and even virtually undetectable towards human eye. After laying the eggs the feminine dies almost instantaneously. The male everyday life only for some time after this.

All the eggs are consequently tested for sickness. If they are actually disease free they may be then raised at a controlled environment. The eggs are fastened to some flat surface by way of a substance that is secreted through female. The larvae hatch from the eggs in in relation to 10 days and are also about a fifty percent a centimeter huge. After the larvae hatch they may be placed under an important layer of gauze. After doing that, they are fed a number of cut up mulberry finds. During this time they may be left to reduce their skin, that do about four times through process. Sometimes they won’t hesitate to feed the larvae apple juice or lettuce. The larvae that happen to be fed the mulberry leaves are those who produce the ideal silk. Each larvae may eat over 50, 000 occasions its size in food.

After the larvae has reached its maximum length, which is about 7. 5 centimeters, it stops eating. This takes about four to six weeks. After this happens it changes color and attaches itself to some kind of object like a frame, tree branch, twig or shrub. Once attached, they start spinning their silk. This goes on for about three to eight days.

This is where the hard work by the silkworms comes in. Over the next few days, the silkworm produces a thread by making a figure eight motion over 300, 000 times, during which time it is actually constructing a cocoon. This is a non stop process. The cocoon is made because this is where the silkworm plans to reside in during what is referred to as its chrysalis level. During this level it sleeps and additionally sheds its skin area. During this level, which lasts concerning sixteen days, the silkworm begins next process of being a moth. The matter, for the man made fiber manufacturer, is if ever the pupae remains alive it would secrete a substance which will destroy the cocoon, thereby ruining the man made fiber threads. To stay away from this from going on the pupae usually are killed. This is why activists have this problem with the procedure.

The truth can be, the percentage of silk which can be actually saved with this process is very tiny. Thousands of pupae cease to live. It takes on the subject of 80 kg of cocoons to create just 1 kg from raw silk.Heini Belanger writes on behalf of algebra-calculators.com. It is a portal that connects education seeker with education provider. Which also provides information about the algebra calculator. Also read this article about solving linear inequalities!

Teen Pregnancy and It’s Effects

Teen pregnancies are still the norm in much of the developing world. Each child born to a young girl normally is considered a blessing.
Despite the fact that the teen birth rate is slowly falling, there are still an estimated one million teen pregnancies in the United States alone. About 85% of these pregnancies are unplanned, which in any population can increase the risk for problems. The biggest risk for teen mothers is delaying prenatal care or worse, 7.2% received no care at all.
The reason for lack of prenatal care is usually delayed pregnancy testing, denial or even fear of telling others about the pregnancy. Most states have a health department or University clinic where prenatal care is free or low cost and patient confidentiality is very important, meaning no one can tell the teen mother’s family.
Teenage mothers are less likely to gain adequate weight during their pregnancy, leading to Low Birth weight which is associated with infant and childhood disorders and a high rate of infant mortality. Low-birth weight babies are more likely to have organs that are not fully developed, which can result in complications such as bleeding in the brain, respiratory distress syndrome, and intestinal problems.
Children born to teenage mothers are less likely to receive proper nutrition, health care, and cognitive and social stimulation. As a result, they may have an underdeveloped intellect and attain lower academic achievement.

Effects

Effects of teen pregnancies on the children involved. These children are far more likely to grow up in poverty, to have more health problems, to suffer from higher rates of abuse and neglect, to fail in school, to become teen mothers, to commit delinquent acts and adult crimes, and to incur failed adult marriages and other relationships.

The burdens of early childbearing on disadvantaged teens are undeniable. Trying to untangle the factors which contribute to teenage pregnancy from its effects, however, leads to a “which came first, the chicken or the egg?” dilemma. Educational failure, poverty, unemployment and low self-esteem are understood to be negative outcomes of early childbearing. These circumstances also contribute to the likelihood of teen pregnancy.

In general, teen mothers have much lower levels of educational attainment than other women, which severely limit their career options and sharply increase their likelihood of economic dependency. Only 70% of teen mothers complete high school or earn a GED, and far fewer risk Factors. Although it is not inevitable, some life circumstances place girls at higher risk of becoming teen mothers. These include poverty, poor school performance, growing up in a single parent household, having a mother who was an adolescent mother, or having a sister who has become pregnant.

Teenage pregnancies have become a public health issue because of their observed negative effects on perinatal outcomes and long-term morbidity. The association of young maternal age and long-term morbidity is usually confounded, however, by the high prevalence of poverty, low level of education, and single marital status among teenage mothers.

Children of teenage mothers have significantly higher odds of placement in certain special education classes and significantly higher occurrence of milder education problems, but when maternal education, marital status, poverty level, and race are controlled, the detrimental effects disappear and even some protective effects are observed.

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